Glance at attacks on the press
The Committee to Protect Journalists on Thursday issued its first "Risk List" for the most significant downward trends in press freedom during 2012. It examined six indicators: fatalities, imprisonments, restrictive legislation, state censorship, impunity in anti-press attacks and journalists driven into exile.
Here are the 10 countries listed and the reasons CPJ gave for listing them:
- Syria: Now the world's deadliest place for journalists. At least 28 were killed and two others went missing between January 1 and December 10, 2012.
- Turkey: With 49 journalists imprisoned for their work as of December 1, 2012, Turkey emerged as the world's leading jailer of journalists.
- Iran: Authorities imprisoned 45 reporters and editors as of December 1, 2012. Imprisoned journalists are subjected to extended solitary confinement, deprivation of medical care, and torture.
- Pakistan: Seven journalists killed in 2012.
- Russia: President Vladimir Putin signed a series of bills seen as aimed at stifling dissent. Sixteen murders of journalists over the past decade.
- Somalia: Twelve journalists were killed in direct relation to their work in 2012.
- Vietnam: At least 14 journalists are behind bars.
- Brazil: Four journalists killed in 2012. Judicial censorship hampers press freedoms; public figures have filed hundreds of lawsuits to silence the press.
- Ecuador: Legislation bars news media from promoting political candidates "directly or indirectly" in the 90 days before an election. Three journalists fled into exile in 2012.
- Ethiopia: An anti-terrorism law is used to silence critics. In late 2012, six journalists were in prison. At least 49 Ethiopian journalists have been forced into exile since 2007.